Answer:  One is obligated to pay Zakat on the current value of the shares that one owns in a company.

Answer:  It is not necessary to inform an eligible person that the amount given to them is zakat.

Answer:  There is no Zakat on Provident/Pension funds. Zakat will only be Fardh when these amounts are received and they are equal to or in excess of Nisab, and further, they are retained for a full Islamic year. There is no Zakat for the years that have passed before receiving these amounts. This is known as Da’eef (insecure loan).

Answer:  If cash, gold or silver has been given as a loan or when merchandise has been sold on terms and the payment is received after a year or two; and the value of the amount owing is that of Nisab, then this is called a Qawi (secure loan), and therefore, Zakat for those years prior to payment will be Fardh.

Answer:  Yes, it is permissible to do so.

And Allah knows best.

Answer:  No, the Sadaqat will not be accepted and the Zakaat will not be considered as fulfilled and accepted.

In a tradition, the Prophet (SA) is reported to have said, ‘Allah does not accept Sadaqat which is from unlawful means.

And Allah knows best.